References to John Knatchbull, alias John Fitch, turn up in a number of convict records, such as the convict indents, Tickets of Leave and Ticket of Leave Passports. Papers of Elwes family, 1848-1959 Western Australia Papers of Charles Fitzgerald relating to his Governorship of Western Australia. public holidays), Sentenced beyond the Seas: Australia's early convict records, NSW Convict Records - 'Lost and Saved' by Christine Shergold, Archives Behind the Scenes - Ticket of Leave butts. Limit 20 per day. Convict Indents list the convicts transported to NSW. Entries detail the crimes and particulars of 104 male and nine female convicts who were tried at the Nottingham Assizes and later sentenced to transporation to Australian penal colonies. When the last convict ship docked in Fremantle many of those transported were not criminals in the true sense but found themselves crossing the oceans as a result of some youthful, impetuous statement or action.

Early indents provide name, date and place of trial and sentence; later indents usually contain more information such as a physical description, native place, age and crime. The index records the convict’s name, ship, date of assignment, to whom assigned, residence and remarks. From about 1810, convicts were seen as a labor source for building and maintaining roads, bridges, courthouses and hospitals. State Archives and Records is the NSW recordkeeping authority. In the management of female convicts the governors of NSW faced many problems and the female factory was seen as a solution to the 'problem' of protecting women and harnessing their economic power. This item was found by one of our volunteers in a Supreme Court Deposition paper. Western Australian accepted male convicts only from 1850 to 1868. The location of surviving records related to convict ancestors in Australia largely depends on where they were sent. The first convicts to Western Australia arrived in 1850, also the site of the last convict ship arrival in 1868.

What makes... Convict life on Norfolk Island was severe and often brutal. It's a great peek into a convict era archive. More Copies of these Certificates of Freedom and related documents may generally be found in the state archives where the convict was last held. [An attempt was also made to send convicts to Port Phillip (Melbourne, Victoria), but this failed.]

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Hooray! The convict James Freeman was found guilty in the Criminal Court on 29 February 1788 of stealing flour. In 1856 Van Diemen's Land changed its name to Tasmania. Good behavior qualified them for a "Ticket of Leave", a Certificate of Freedom, Conditional Pardon or even an Absolute Pardon.

This Guide lists the more significant State archives relating to population muster and census records, 1788-1901. Drawing of convicts in New Holland, 1793 Wikipedia, Australian Convicts and First Settlers Project, Send a private message to the Profile Manager, Public Comments:

Of those who came during this period three men, well known to each other in Sydney, are recognized for their medical abilities and as founding fathers of several respected institutions which developed as the settlement turned from a gaol into a colony.

Kimberly Powell is a professional genealogist and the author of The Everything Guide to Online Genealogy. A conditional pardon required the freed convict to remain in Australia, while an absolute pardon allowed the freed convict to return to the U.K. if they chose. A family tree focusing on New South Wales colonial inhabitants (indigenous, convicts and free immigrants) and their descendants. Search over 12,000 names and view digital versions online. By the 1850s 165000 convicts had been transported to Australia while well over 200 000 free migrants arrived between 1825 and 1850.

10 Convicts Who Shaped Australia’s Early History Debra Kelly As far as Europeans are concerned, life in Australia started in earnest when it was turned into a convenient place to dump criminals who would otherwise have been taking up space in British jails and breathing important European air better reserved for respectable citizens. Almost two thirds of convicts were English (along with a small number of Scottish and Welsh), with the Irish making up the remaining one third. The Tasmanian Names Index includes convicts (1803–1893) and convict permissions to marry (1829–1857).