The most current building code enforced in most jurisdictions in the United States is the 2006 International Building Code (IBC, 2006). But the interlayer also provides a way to apply several other technologies and benefits, such as coloring, sound dampening, resistance to fire, ultraviolet filtering and other technologies that can be embedded in or with the interlayer. Annealed glass breaks into large, jagged shards that can cause serious injury and is considered a hazard in architectural applications. In today’s world, modern glass variants are produced from float glass. And it adds functional benefits on the inside. This was a fairly expensive process. Insulating glass, or double glazing, consists of a window or glazing element of two or more layers of glazing separated by a spacer along the edge and sealed to create a dead air space between the layers. Heat reflective glass such as AIS SunShield is another high performance product which has advanced solar control technology to reduce heat and glare from entering the building. Glass is produced in standard metric thicknesses of 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 15, 19 and 25 mm, with 10mm being the most popular sizing in the architectural industry. Generally, glass is characterised as a transparent solid material that can be used to make a variety of products in fields like architecture and design. The evacuated space between the two sheets can be very shallow and yet be a good insulator, yielding insulative window glass with nominal thicknesses as low as 6 mm overall. Annealed glass is glass without internal stresses caused by heat treatment, i.e., rapid cooling, or by toughening or heat strengthening.

It was replaced in the 19th century by the cylinder, sheet, and rolled plate processes, but it is still used in traditional construction and restoration. Glass is a material made from liquid sand. These buildings and requirements can be of the following nature: Glass applications also differ for interior and exterior of a building.

The conduction of heat between the panes, caused by the spacers, tends to limit evacuated glazing's overall insulative effectiveness. When used in buildings, glass is often of a safety type, which include reinforced, toughened and laminated glasses. The side of the glass that has been in contact with the tin has a very small amount of the tin embedded in its surface. This type of hard coated glass, such as the AIS Opal, is used in the exterior of buildings for providing optimum solar control. It is used in some end products and often in double-glazed windows. If float glass is broken it will break into very sharp, hazardous pieces of glass. The development of diaper latticed windows was in part because three regular diamond-shaped panes could be conveniently cut from a piece of Crown glass, with minimum waste and with minimum distortion. Its pitted, rough surface gives it a foggy appearance, thus making it the perfect solution for privacy. On breaking, heat-strengthened glass breaks into sharp pieces that are typically somewhat smaller than those found on breaking annealed glass, and is intermediate in strength between annealed and toughened glasses. 1898: Wired-cast glass first commercially produced by Pilkington, 1959: Float glass launched in UK. The combination of two panels of glasses and the trapped air is what makes insulated glass a superior energy efficient method of glazing. Similarly, thicker glass is pushed back and not permitted to expand as it cools on the tin. were manufactured. Now, we let’s cast a closer look at its application in different types of buildings. Annealed glass or float glass is the most basic form of manufactured glass that lacks the toughness or impact resistance of processed glass. This type of decorative glass is available in many colors, patterns, and translucencies and is used for both exterior and interior applications. Glass coated with a low-emissivity substance can reflect radiant infrared energy, encouraging radiant heat to remain on the same side of the glass from which it originated, while letting visible light pass. Fully Tempered Glass [citation needed] Modern architectural prism lighting is generally done with a plastic film applied to ordinary window glass. Another common polymer known as Ethyl Vinyl Acetate (EVA) is frequently combined with other materials to achieve striking decorative effects. A glance at the financial highlights of the company over the years. Annealed glass is the basic float or flat glass that hasn’t been heat-strengthened or tempered and it tends to break into large, jagged shards.

Resin lamination involves mechanically holding two panels of glass together and pouring liquid resin into the small gap in-between. Developed by James Hartledsay in 1848. Both are made using a PVB interlayer, but they have drastically different tensile strength. The idea of heating glass is based on usage of energy-efficient low-emissive glass that is generally simple silicate glass with special metallic oxides coating. Glass is one of the most important materials in usage and finds many practical applications in our daily lives and throughout the world. The treatment on a mirror is used to obtain a soft matted reflection. Windshields are typically laminated glasses. As the top thickness of the glass cools it contracts and forces the corresponding glass elements to contract to introduce stresses into the glass panel and increasing strength.

It contains 75% silica, sodium dioxide, lime, magnesia or magnesium oxide, and alumina or aluminium oxide. Laminated Glass Annealed Glass Ceramic frit can be applied using a full coverage coating process, a silk screen process or a pre-printed ceramic decal. Motorized illuminated ceramic frit glass louvers.

In South Asian countries like India, glass manufacturing first began around 1730 BCE. The sheet would then be broken off the pipe and trimmed to form a rectangular window to fit into a frame. The cut cylinder is then placed in an oven where the cylinder unrolls into a flat glass sheets. Before the glass can be used as a building material it is often heat-treated for durability and safety. The task of holding the panes apart is performed by a grid of spacers, which typically consist of small stainless steel discs that are placed around 20 mm apart. Thus, it is used in the side windows and rear windshield of automobiles and does not harm the passengers in the event of an accident. Inherently, insulated glass demonstrates high thermal performance by reducing heat gain in summers and heat loss and condensation in winters. SGP stands for SentryGuard Plus Interlayer manufactured by Dupont. Smart glass such as AIS Swytchglas, is a type of glass that switches its optical transmission properties due to passage of current. History of Glass Manufacture: London Crown Glass co. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, Learn how and when to remove this template message, "The Difference Between Tempered Glass and Ballistic Glass | Barrett Limited", Reflected light from London skyscraper melts car, Glass Association of North America (GANA), Welsh School of Architectural Glass, Swansea,, Articles needing additional references from January 2008, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2017, Articles lacking in-text citations from February 2008, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Today, there are various decorative glass types offer a variety of design options for residential or commercial solutions.

Evacuated glazing also offers very good sound insulation in comparison with other popular types of window glazing.

AIS Stronglas is a very high grade tempered glass that is several orders of magnitude stronger than ordinary glass. A nanometre-scale coating of titanium dioxide on the outer surface of glass introduces two mechanisms which lead to the self-cleaning property. While the production process is similar, heating the glass to approximately 1.200 degrees Fahrenheit and then force-cooling, the cooling process in tempered glass is accelerated to create a higher surface and/or edge compression in the glass. When broken, the PVB layer prevents the glass from breaking apart, creating a "spider web" cracking pattern. Glass is an important component of vehicles since it provides structural integrity and also shields the occupants from external elements on the road. Heat-strengthened glass, or tempered glass, is glass that has been heat treated to induce surface compression, but not to the extent of causing it to "dice" on breaking in the manner of tempered glass. This insulator layer makes the glass impact resistant and sound resistant. From here, glass leaves as a ribbon at a temperature of 600 degree Celsius. Similarly, when the surface of chemically strengthened glass is deeply scratched, this area loses its additional strength. Yet, low-E soft coated glass such AIS Ecosense provide optimum light transmission, thus being preferred in green glass architecture. Heat strengthened laminated glass is stronger than annealed, but not as strong as tempered. Other enhancements due to glass coatings include changes in solar insulation, anti-reflection, water resistance, etc. Modern cast glass is formed by a variety of processes such as kiln casting, or casting into sand, graphite or metal moulds. [11] Prism glass can be found on sidewalks, where it is known as vault lighting,[12] in windows, partitions, and canopies, where it is known as prism tiles, and as deck prisms, which were used to light spaces below deck on sailing ships. There are two different types of heat-treated glasses, heat-strengthened and tempered. Out of all manufactured silicate glass, soda lime glass accounts for more than 90% production. Low-iron/ Extra Clear Glass When used in buildings, glass is often of a safety type, which include reinforced, toughened and laminated glasses. Thus, this glass can change from transparent to translucent and vice versa within seconds. in order to harness the energy of the sun. Depending on the production method, laminated glass is classified in the below categories: Poly Vinyl Butyral or PVB laminated glass is produced using heat and pressure to sandwich a thin layer of PVB between layers of glass. When both pieces of glass are broken it produces a "wet blanket" effect and it will fall out of its opening. Types of Glass used in Construction, - Coggle Diagram: Types of Glass used in Construction,

Decorative Glass Also a review of standards, both national and international once is provided. The glass used for this purpose is typically whiter in colour than the clear glasses used for other applications. Furthermore, because of the atmospheric pressure present on the outside of an evacuated glazing unit, its two glass sheets must somehow be held apart in order to prevent them flexing together and touching each other, which would defeat the object of evacuating the unit. The coating process can be applied while the glass is still in the float line with the glass still warm, producing what is known as "hard-coated" glass. The paper gives a literature review of today’s available architectural glass types as well as their characteristics and developing tendencies. The pattern is impressed upon the sheet by a printing roller which is brought down upon the glass as it leaves the main rolls while still soft. Laminated glass, upon breakage, remains intact as the broken pieces stick to the interlayer. While silica is the main constituent of glass, other chemical compounds such as sodium oxide, sodium carbonate, and lime or calcium oxide are added to it in order to yield glass of desirable properties such as the right melting point and viscosity. Heat-strengthened glass is approximately twice as strong as annealed, or untreated, glass. The two main types of processed glass are laminated glass and toughened/tempered glass. When certain coatings are applied to processed glass, they change its optical and heat transmission properties. This often results in more efficient windows because radiant heat originating from indoors in winter is reflected back inside, while infrared heat radiation from the sun during summer is reflected away, keeping it cooler inside. In this manufacturing process, glass is blown into a cylindrical iron mould.